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ISO 9001:2008

 

Temperature Range Temperature Rating-IHI PCB connectors

 

Q: What is the Temperature Range or temperature rating of IHI Tin plated aluminum PCB connector lugs?

A: There are two areas to discuss, the connector itself and the entire device in which the connectors is used.   

 

1. UL and CSA under UL486A-B and C22.2 No.65 standards define the MAXIMUM OPERATING temperature of the connector using the 75C and 90C temperature rating codes 7 and 9. (see Agency labels below for examples of 75C and 90c connectors).   

 

2. Derating of maximum current using the largest rated wire is done using NEC derating tables (below) which takes operating temperatures higher than 30C and lowers the current, to allow for less I^2R watts of heat generation to offset the higher ambient temperature.  At some high ambient temperature, the useful current rating of the wire and connectors, and certainly even more so the PCB copper foil traces, is too limited unless forced cooling is used.

 

All of the test data for UL and CSA tested connectors is with “free air” flow, not forced air. User of fans, liquid cooling and large heat sinks change the temperature equations dramatically which is why the engineering of the whole device is in the hands of the OEM designer not the maker of the connectors.

 

3. Testing of connectors by UL and CSA and other accredited test labs includes a 500 cycle, over current, accelerated aging stress test on these connectors. There is a disqualification of the test if the temperature rises over 125C above ambient test temperature. 


125C is not a recommended maximum operating temperature but a guide for perspective. Generally, a connector that rises in temperature by 125C in free air would often fail the 500 cycles test, somewhere between 100C-125C rise over ambient.


4. Low temperature ambient temperatures. Historically the testing standard is based on maximum temperatures since current creates heat and heat is the ultimate barrier to larger current flow.  There is no lower temperature suggested in the UL486A-B connector standard except that connectors can be uprated for cooler ambient temperatures in place of down rated (see NEC tables).

 

Recently UL and CSA have added low temperature testing for connectors with polymeric insulation since some plastics do suffer from cracking at low temperatures and often the plastic needs to be crimped or bent or otherwise strained in installation.
For polymeric components of a connector the test temperature picked by UL /CSA is -10C.


Again, this is not a lower limit on operating temperature but more a point on the scale below which an installation technician would be concerned about cracking plastic components of metal and plastic connector such as crimp lugs.
IHI PCB connectors are uninsulated and so do not contain polymeric materials in their structure.

 

5. Only the OEM designer can both design and test the final assembly for a known ambient temperature performance.
Outside specialist labs that perform this kind of whole product testing are able to provide pass fail to industry recognized tests.  

 

6. As an example, from an OEM customer’s published literature with several IHI PCB connectors on a complete “tropicalized” power controller product that still performs after 20 years of sales in the global markets:

 

Environmental:
Ambient:  -40C to +60C
Storage:    -40C to +80C
Humidity:  100% (No condensation)
High Temp shutdown:
70C disconnect line power source
80C disconnect load (battery power)
60C reconnect load (battery power)
50C Reconnect Line power source  
   
This product was subjected to significant Third Party stress and environmental testing to support the offered temperature specs and has significant internal temperature monitoring protections to avoid self-destruction.
Notably above you see the 70C maximum temperature line power shutdown and 80C battery power shutdown.  
Rather closely aligned to the 75C max nominal rating of the PCB connector.

IHI can make no projections of the connectors temperatures in use which is solely the role of the OEM to determine.

 

75C Rating

75C Rating

 

90C Rating

90C Rating

LugsDirect.com

Ampacities of Insulated Conductors From NEC Table NEC310.15(B)(16)

Not More than Three Conductors in Raceway or Cable or Earth (Directly Buried)
(Based on Ambient Temperature of 30° C, 86° F)

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Size Copper Conductors Aluminum Conductors
Copper-Clad Conductors
  60° C
(140° F)
75° C
(167° F)
90° C
(194° F)
    60° C
(140° F)
75° C
(167° F)
90° C
(194° F)
 
AWG
Kcmil
Types Types Types Types Types Types
TW RHW TBS TW RHW TBS
UF THW SA UF THHW SA, SIS
THWN SIS THW THHN, THHW
XHHW FEP THWN THW-2
USE FEPB XHHW THWN-2
ZW RHH USE RHH,
THHN RHW-2
THWN USE-2
XHHW XHH, XHHW
  XHHW-2, ZW-2
             
18 - - 14 - - -
16 - - 18 - - -
14 * 20 (15) 20 (15) 25 - - -
12 * 25 (20) 25 (20) 30 20 1 20 1 25 1
10 * 30 35 (30) 40 25 30 1 35 1
8 40 50 55 30 40 45
6 55 65 75 40 50 60
4 70 85 95 55 65 75
3 85 100 110 65 75 85
2 95 115 130 75 90 100
1 110 130 150 85 100 115
1/0 125 150 170 100 120 135
2/0 145 175 195 115 135 150
3/0 165 200 225 130 155 175
4/0 195 230 260 150 180 205
250 215 255 290 170 205 230
300 240 285 320 190 230 255
350 260 310 350 210 250 280
400 280 335 380 225 270 305
500 320 380 430 260 310 350
600 355 420 475 285 340 385
700 385 460 520 310 375 420
750 400 475 535 320 385 435
800 410 490 555 330 395 450
900 435 520 585 355 425 480
1000 455 545 615 375 445 500
1250 495 590 665 405 485 545
1500 520 625 705 435 520 585
1750 545 650 735 455 545 615
2000 560 665 750 470 560 630
 

Correction Factors for Ambient Temperature

Over 30° C, 86° F

For Ambient Temperatures Over 30° C, 86° F, multiply the ampacities shown above by the appropriate factor show below:
Ambient Temperature Copper Conductors Aluminum Conductors
Copper-Clad Conductors
21-25 C,
70-77 F
  1.08 1.05 1.04     1.08 1.05 1.04  
26-30 C,
78-86 F
1 1 1 1 1 1
31-35 C,
87-95 F
0.91 0.94 0.96 0.91 0.94 0.96
36-40 C,
96-104 F
0.82 0.88 0.91 0.82 0.88 0.91
41-45 C,
105-113 F
0.71 0.82 0.87 0.71 0.82 0.87
46-50 C,
114-122 F
0.58 0.75 0.82 0.58 0.75 0.82
51-55 C,
123-131 F
0.41 0.67 0.76 0.41 0.67 0.76
56-60 C,
132-140 F
- 0.58 0.71 - 0.58 0.71
61-70 C,
141-158 F
- 0.33 0.58 - 0.33 0.58
71-80 C,
159-176 F
- - 0.41 - - 0.41
                     
 

* The load current rating and the overcurrent protection for conductor Types shall not exceed 15 amperes for 14 AWG, 20 amperes for 12 AWG, and 30 amperes for 10 AWG aluminum and copper-clad aluminum after any correction factors for ambient temperature and number of conductors have been applied.

References: To buy NEC National Electric Code books go to World Wide Web "nfpa.org"

 

UL White Book Notes on Ampacity Level Rating for ZMVV UL486A-B connectors 

 

Ampacity level rating:

 

A. Equipment use — Equipment wiring requirements may restrict the sizing, ampacity and temperature ratings of connected conductors. Equipment requirements may limit 90°C or higher-rated conductors to 60 or 75°C ampacity in accordance with Electrical Equipment for Use in Ordinary Locations (AALZ).

 

B. General use — Connectors rated 75°C are intended for use at ampacities not greater than those for 75°C-rated conductors, and connectors rated 90°C are for use at ampacities not greater than those for 90°Crated conductors. Connectors may be marked with ‘‘75C’’ or ‘‘90C’’ to represent these levels. Alternatively, these rating levels may be represented by a 7 or 9 associated with the marking ‘‘CU,’’ ‘‘AL’’ or ‘‘ALCU,’’ e.g., ‘‘AL9,’’ ‘‘AL9CU,’’ ‘‘AL7CU,’’ ‘‘CU7,’’ ‘‘CU9.’’ Connectors not marked with an ampacity number 7 or 9 have an assumed level per the following table. Use of higher-temperature-rated conductors is not prohibited, provided the ampacity levels continue to be based on the 75 or 90°C ratings.

 

white book on ampacity level rating

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